The Basics of PCB Assembly Process

The assembly of printed circuit boards is a multi-step process. It begins with the manufacturing of the substrate, followed by drilling and plating holes on the substrate surface, and then printing the circuit pattern on the substrate. After these first 3 basic steps, the contact fingers are attached then fused using a tin-lead coating. The panels are then sealed, stenciled and cut before the components are mounted on the PCB.

PCB assembly- Preparing the Substrate  

Electronic circuit boardThe substrate refers to the baseboard through which the rest of the PCB will be made. Substrates are often made from woven glass fiber. The glass fiber is impregnated with epoxy resin. The substrate is either sprayed or dipped in a vat of resin.
After impregnation, the glass fiber is passed through rollers to flatten it into the desired thickness. Excess resin is also removed as the substrate passes through the rollers.

The substrate is placed in an oven to semi-cure. After which, the substrate is cut into large panels. The panels are then stacked in layers. In between each glass fiber layer is a layer of copper foil with adhesive backings. The stacked panels are placed in presses under high temperature (340˚F/170˚C) and pressure (1500 psi) for at least about an hour. The resin is fully cured in this process and the copper adhesives are tightly bound to the substrate.

Quick Turn PCB Assembly– Drilling, plating, printing

Several substrate panels are piled and pinned together for stability. The panel is then laid out to sketch a pattern. The panel stacks are placed inside a CNC machine where designated holes are to be drilled. After drilling, the holes are de-burred in order to remove any excess from the edges of the holes. Copper plating is placed on the inside surface of the holes, which will serve as conductive circuits. The non-conductive surfaces are plugged to prevent them from getting plated.

The circuit pattern is printed on the substrate either through a substractive or through additive process. In the subtractive process, the entire substrate surface is plated with copper. The pattern is then etched on the copper plating, removing copper on areas that are not part of the circuit design.

In the additive process, the surface is covered in foil, revealing only the areas where the copper plating is supposed to go in. The copper plating is only placed in the desired pattern and the rest of the substrate surface is left unplated.

PCB assembly- contact fingers

Contact fingers are responsible for the conduction in between the layers of glass fiber substrates. These are fastened to the substrate edge and connected to the printed circuit. These are then masked off for plating, using three kinds of metals, namely, tin-lead, nickel, and then gold.

The entire PCB surface with the circuit pattern printed with copper is coated with tin-lead. This coating material is very porous and easily oxidized. To protect the PCB from oxidation (rusting), the entire circuit board is passed through a hot oil bath or a “reflow” oven. The tin-lead coating is melted and allowed to reflow on the shiny surface of the PCB.

Quick Turn PCB Assembly- Seal, Stencil and Cut

Circute bordThe panels are then sealed with epoxy. This will protect the printed circuit patterns from damage when the PCB components are being attached. Then, other instructions and markings are stenciled on the circuit boards.

After which, the panels are cut into the desired size of individual boards. After cutting, the edges are smoothed out.

Quick Turn PCB Assembly- Mounting

Electronic components of the PCB are then mounted as the boards are passed through several machines. The panels are passed through an automatic solder paster if surface mount technology is used to mount the components.
After all the components are placed, the boards are packaged for storage and shipping.

Carry your Seal with Pride with the Help from

We believe that every person needs to become a part of a group. During our childhood years, we had our first group that is called family, and later on, we became playmates with a group of children to whom we share our common interests with. Various clubs and organizations had popped up upon our entrance to schools that we ended up becoming a part of. Even until we had our own professions, there was always a group where we belong to.

There is one special thing, which is common in groups and organizations, whether it be the high school sports team, college fraternity, volunteer group, or the department where we work in. Each of them has their own seal or logo, which symbolizes and represents the group’s identity and at times, their motto or vision statements. Just seeing it sewn in flags and shirts, printed in mugs and notebooks and displayed in establishments make us feel proud and honoured as members of the group.

Have you ever had the thought of wanting your seals to be not only sewn in thin cloth or printed in souvenirs, but at the same time not as big as the logo you use in your building’s lobby? Here in, we give you the opportunity to obtain just what you deserve to have – challenge coins. Imagine having a gathering with your frat bros and just having to simply pick in your pocket and show everyone how proud you are of becoming a part of the group, or telling your children how proud you are of your department and show them the coin you have as a proof of becoming a member of it and see your kids in admiration.

Custom Coins

Here in our site, , having the coin carrying your seal is not as complicated as you think it is

It is a fast and simple process. Customers can send their ideas and we take it from there and do the work. You send us your ideas at our site and with the help of our best artists, we will develop it just the way you like it. Your ideas may come in photos, sketches or simple words describing your desired outcome. You then choose the shape you want your coin to be. Any shape, which enters your mind, is acceptable.

Not fond of round coins? Then maybe you would love to have your coin shaped rectangular, like the sun, or like an animal perhaps. We just have your seal embedded on a round coin and remove the excess part just to match your desired shape with no added fees. After deciding the design and shape, you can choose which metal/metals you like your coins to be made of.

Whether you want your coin to be in gold, silver, black nickel, or brass, or a mixture of any of those in polished or antique style, we can provide it to you just to match the way you want.

Lastly, you pick from a wide range of options. You may choose if you want your coin to be in diamond cut edges, keychains, bottle openers, or velvet boxes. For the full set of options, visit our website ChallengeCoins4Less. With just a few clicks, you can have your own challenge coin ready for work. You will also have it on your doorstep then in your palms in no time.

Challengecoins4less will truly satisfy you. What you see is what you get and what you want is what you receive at a very reasonable price. Pricing varies depending on the size of the coin and no additional fees are made for customized shapes. Revisions don’t charge extra as well. Shipment fee varies but for people who reside in the continental U.S.A., it is totally free. You can actually have your own customized challenge coin for a price of $5.

What a great feeling it would be to carry the seal of your own sport teams, academic organizations, volunteer groups, fraternities and sororities, and workplace anywhere you go with pride. Just looking at it, a coin designed, shaped and made just the way you want makes you remember all the good memories you had with your groups and recall the motto, vision and mission statements you had promised to live by until the end.

Buying Brand New: Guidelines For Investing In Storage Containers

Storage containers provide versatile short-term and long-term packing and space-saving solutions for business owners and homeowners alike. Their uses run from toilet blocks to laboratories, making them a worthy investment. Prior to purchasing and installing a storage container, you should ask yourself a few important questions such as the duration in which you intend on using the container. Go through this site moveablecontainer for more details.
If you plan to utilize the storage container frequently, then the wiser choice would be to buy one instead of renting one. The second question to ask is whether to buy them secondhand or brand new. If you are not keen on doing any repairs in the near future, then the latter would be the best option.

Some Guidelines For Investing In Storage Containers Are:

Storage containers come in different sizes. Residential containers are ideally the 20 ft. models since they require minimal space. This is also recommended for small businesses. However, if your business requires a larger storage space, the 40 ft. models are advisable since they can provide you with three times more space. High cube containers that are typically 9 ft. 6 inches high can offer maximum storage capacity for big businesses.

Portable Storage Container

One should be aware that certain regions have restrictions concerning containers, particularly regarding the size. It is up to you to research the rules in your city or country. Some companies also produce containers in a variety of modified lengths, some even as small as 10 ft.

After you have decided on the size, make sure that the preferred location can sufficiently accommodate the container. The most ideal delivery space would be two times the container’s length. One must also consider not just the size of the container but also the method of delivery. Determine whether the site’s length is enough to accommodate part of the delivery truck. It is important to place the containers in a level location. Otherwise, consider using wood blocks in order to aid in leveling the storage cubicle.
Ensuring that the site has sufficient drainage will help prevent sinking. Delivery options and transport costs are also among the factors to look into. Think of the distance between the seller and the delivery site. Tilt-bed delivery, chassis delivery and flatbed delivery are among the most common means of transporting the containers and each has their advantages and disadvantages.

Storage containers delivered via tractor-trailer are generally more convenient but costly at the same time. A huge drawback is that while they are able to pick up 20 ft. containers, they are incapable of holding loaded 40 ft. cubicles. Flatbed delivery trucks, on the other hand, can manage 40 ft. containers through forklift. It is also a more affordable alternative compared to tilt-bed transport; therefore, making it more ideal for long-distance delivery.

The downside is that equipment is necessary for loading and unloading whereas containers carried via flatbed are simply slid towards the ground. Chassis delivery is also a comparatively low-cost transport method. It is the preferred means for shipping cargo overseas. However, a crane would be required in picking up 40 ft. steel containers on and off a chassis.

Storage Containers

Storage containers can have either a low or a high locking gear

The high locking version is more advisable if you plan to use the container for ground level storage. While most storage cubicles may come with bare wooden flooring, some have polyurethane coating. The latter type is much easier to clean. There are also floors with plastic coating that can provide you with a non-skid surface.

Also, when buying brand new, take advantage of new built-in features such as the lock box. A lock box will enable you to padlock the hasp inside the box conveniently. Keeping in mind these essential tips will aid you in investing on the right storage container for your home or your business.

Advantages of Using Custom Patches for Brand Promotion

If you’re running a business, it is essential for you to promote its brand. The good news is that there are lots of marketing strategies for you to do it. First, you can set up blogs and write contents containing SEO-related keywords. Second, you can give out promotional items, such as pens, umbrellas, lanyards and mugs during job fairs, conferences and other events.

Third, you may establish brand recall and recognition by wearing lanyards and uniforms with custom patches. Generally, these patches don’t just add design to the company uniforms. These can also make the brand look more secured, established and sophisticated. For certain organizations, using customized patches embodies higher value, respect and good reputation.

This article lists down the benefits of using custom embroidered patches to promote your business, whether it’s big or small:

It serves as a form of advertisement –

Like any other items, customized patches help in establishing brand recall. They are like walking billboards that attract potential customers and prospective clients when worn inside the office and during out-of-office engagements. Giving out polo shirts with custom embroidered design of the company name and logo to new and existing employees can make a statement.

Custom Patche

It’s cost-effective –

You don’t need to spend a lot of money in using customized patches as form of advertisement. In fact, it’s just an add-on price for investing on promotional items such shirts, bags and caps. Forget about promoting your brand on TV, radio and newspapers because you can still reach wider audience through this marketing strategy.

It provides a more professional look –

Customized patches are there to make the uniforms look more appealing and the logos more professional than silk screen printing. In addition, printed logos fade easily, allowing your company polo shirts to look like typical casual wear. Meanwhile, custom patches won’t get washed away easily unless they are forcefully detached from the fabric regardless of the fabric’s material.

It makes your business different from the others –

Uniqueness is something that you have to achieve when promoting your business. To stand out from your competitors, you need to use the most effective and unique marketing strategies. For instance, you can give out embroidered hats and aprons while the rest are giving away embroidered polo shirts. That way, prospective clients and potential customers will easily notice you.

Custom Patches

You can come up with your own theme –

Depending on your company’s vision, mission and goals, you may create a custom logo design that can be used as a custom patch for all employee uniforms. Typically, you will work with expert digitizers in creating these patches. You can even suggest other things to make them more unique like using specialty threads or gradient embroidery. When designing a custom patch for your brand, think of it as a way to represent your people within the organization.

It’s flexible –

Don’t think that using custom patches is only limited to certain materials. In fact, you can attach it on various materials including denims, cottons, fleece sweatshirts, track jackets and even hats or aprons. Take note that a specific type of custom embroidered patch works best on a certain material, so it’s important to consult an expert digitizer during the planning stage.

You may personalize it –

Aside from putting embroidered company logos, you can also include embroidered employee names in their uniforms so that visitors can easily recognize your people. Names on their shirts are still easily readable from a few distance than those indicated on their ID cards. In terms of customer service, using custom embroidered patches and names can also leave a great first impression. Whatever industry you’re in, your people will look clean and respectable at all times.

There are lots of experts that you can work with – Choose an embroidery expert who understands your needs. Your chosen expert should also be able to provide you with the following:

  1. Plenty of optional designs and suggestions
  2. Good customer service
  3. Quick turnaround


You may check the Internet for a list of websites like that can offer such services. What are you waiting for? Try using iron on patches for your business now!

Cannot Think Of Your Next Topic? Here Are Some Suggestions For Motivational Speakers

We at believe that motivational speakers have the capacity to inspire people through the use of words regardless of what topic is being discussed. With that, we understand that in some cases, motivational speakers may run out of ideas on what they can actually talk about for their next speech.

Of course we believe that motivational speakers should always draw the subject matter from their experience, and that regardless of the topic that they choose, their aim should always be to change the habits or the attitudes of the audience towards something. However, if you ever run out of ideas, you here are just some topics that you can use in your next speaking event.

First, here are some topics that aim to change the behavior of your audience. These topics aim to change the way your audience thinks or feels regarding a certain topic.

Motivational Speakers

• How to motivate your audience to eat healthier.
It is not secret that people are becoming less and less healthy thanks to the diet that they are eating. This topic will focus on getting your audience in shape by inspiring them to change the food that they eat daily.

• Saving strategies which will promote a comfortable life upon retirement.

When you are retired and you no longer work, you will need money to continue living. Giving a speech on how simple tweaks on attitude with money will greatly help people be motivated with saving for their future.

• Motivating your audience to help those in need after natural calamities.

Hurricanes, earthquakes, and all other natural disasters can affect anyone. Talking about how we should give a hand to those in need will garner lots of audience and will motivate them to do something positive for the good of others.

Keynote Speaker

• Pursuing happiness.

This is probably one of the oldest topics in the book, but there are lots of people who would be willing to listen to a person inspire them to pursue what makes their lives complete, instead of sticking to a dead-end job they dislike.

Aside from these behavior changing topics, we also recommend these opinionated topics that can get people talking in your next gig along with other motivational speakers.

• Why some television and internet programs should be banned.

Not everything you see on the media is good for you, so why isn’t there any censorship established in all media outlets?

• Motivating students to pursue research.

Research is not only a complete learning experience, but it is also a money making business that can pay well, if done right. Convincing students to pursue research will not only help society, but will also help the researchers with their education as well.

• Botox and plastic surgeries.

Possibly a discussion on whether these are good or not will get a lot of people talking and speaking their minds, incorporating their own personal experiences into a discussion. This is something that you as a speaker who motivates can do.

• Video games, whether they are important or are they just a mere nuisance.
Motivational SpeakersThere are a lot of opinions tossed around regarding video games, and so convincing people to agree with one side over the other will certainly spark discussion.

It is okay if you do not feel like talking about any of these suggested topics, or if you think that these topics are already over rated and will not give you the audience impact that you want. There are still other options you can try, such as speaking about your personal experiences and how they have helped you become a better person, how a person can move on from past pains, or how anyone can achieve their dreams beginning by believing that they can. Regardless, the topic should be something that you can deliver with confidence and conviction, and your main goal should always be centered on making your speech a learning experience for you and for your audience.

Author Bio:
Motivational speakers have the capacity to inspire people through the use of words regardless of what topic is being discussed.

Hybrid Clubs: The Clubs Of A Modern Golf Player

Many people consider golf as a sport of choice and concentration. Playing golf is also a great way to build your social contacts and relationship with many people too. Some businessmen and salesmen use golf as a way to build a stronger and more established rapport with their clients and business associates. Others consider golf as a great way to spend time with their love ones and friends.

For some players and enthusiasts, golf is also a very expensive sport to play and maintain. Most golf equipments, especially golf clubs, are pretty expensive and costly. A lot of players, especially people from the upper class, can have their means to buy the latest and the best golf clubs available in the market today. However, there are also some golf players who purchase cheap golf clubs in order to enjoy this hobby too.


If you are on a budget, buying golf clubs will not be as easy as an ordinary window shopping task. It may be a confusing situation for you to choose whether you will spend all your money to buy the expensive ones of the best quality or buy the cheap golf clubs available and spend your remaining money on other golf equipments. In buying your own set, always keep in mind that you should be as precise as possible and always stick to your budget. Cheap golf clubs are also pretty good since some golf companies are offering cheap golf clubs with good quality too.

There are four different types of golf clubs available in the market today: the wood, the iron, the putter, and the hybrid.

Wood types are especially made for long distance fairways. Irons, which are the most adaptable ones, are commonly used for different kinds of shots and situations. Putters are used to roll your target golf ball from the greens to the cup. And a hybrid, a combination of a wood and an iron, has the characteristics of both types.
Hybrid ClubsCompared to the other golf types, the most increasing in popularity now is the hybrid. Hybrids have a club head which looks like a wood and are often used by many players for difficult roughs which require a long shot. For players who are having a hard time using a long iron for any long shots, then, hybrids will be easier for them to use.

Hybrids are also good substitutes for fairway woods although fairway woods have better speed and have greater chances for a better distance hit. However, hybrids feature lots of benefits for golf players of all levels.

Provides increased distance

A hybrid can send a ball with a distance of 5 to 8 yards further than how long an iron can do. If a three iron can send a ball with 160 yards, a three hybrid can send a ball with 165 yards. Since hybrids have increased trajectory, it gives extra driving distance to the club.

Superior Head Design

Hybrids are considered as more superior to the irons because of their head design. The head design for a hybrid allows more trajectories when the club is swing. Hybrids, like their iron counterpart, boost the golf player’s confidence when using them.

In addition to providing increased trajectory, better distance and boosting of the golf player’s confidence, hybrids also give other advantages to its user. These clubs, since they have a lighter weight, provide an easier swing ability to the user. These clubs also have a more forgiving face, which can assist the player more in making errant shots in the field.

Getting the right golf club for you is not an easy and ordinary task. Always remember that each golf player is different, some may be best for others and not good for you.

Hybrid clubs are one of the best brand of golf in the business today and their things are effortlessly.

HCG drops or HCG Injections – How to Make the Right Choice

One of the most common questions asked by individuals who want to lose weight through the HCG diet is, “Which type of HCG should one use?” HCG or Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is available in two forms: HCG injections and prescription or homeopathic HCG drops.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin or HCG is a hormone that is present in the bodies of pregnant women. The real hormone is not used for the injections or the drops. So, whatever it is you buy will surely be a synthetic form of HCG. The hormone is present in the placenta during pregnancy and it facilitates fat metabolism and provides nutrients to the fetus.

HCG Injection

HCG InjectionHCG injections are of the pharmaceutical grade and require a prescription. Before shots are given, you are first seen by a medical doctor to assess your health and if you are medically ready for the diet. HCG injections are given as part of the HCG diet program. While getting the shots can make you slimmer, the very low calorie diet must also be followed strictly for a period of one month.

HCG is injected under the skin and is done daily on the intensive phase of the program. It can be painful and could trigger systemic side effects. Injections are also costly and the doctor’s fee is also pricey.

HCG Drops

These homeopathic drops are just as effective as the injections. These drops come in bottles with a dropper provided for convenience in application. You don’t need a prescription to get these drops and they are readily available at your local supermarket or you can buy online.

The drops are instilled sublingually or under the tongue. The recommended dosage is 10 drops of HCG, three times a day. An extra dose of another 10 drops may be given if you feel hungry, although that rarely happens since HCG suppresses the appetite. The maximum dose per day is six. The drops should be taken 10-15 minutes before a meal.

HCG DropsExercise is also not required when taking the drops but diet should be very low in calories. Suppliers of HCG drops will also provide you with diet kits that include your meal plan and recipes that you can use for the different phases of the HCG diet.

The advantage of taking these drops is that you won’t feel any hunger pangs because you’ll utilize unwanted fat for energy. It suppresses appetite and still maintains your energy levels.

HCG drops are cheaper than getting shots. Likewise, they aren’t painful and their side effects are less bothersome than those of systemic HCG injections. The drops are also readily available online or at your local HCG dealer. There is no need for weekly trips to the doctor to get a prescription. When buying online, make sure that you are ordering from a reliable source that makes good quality drops.

Making the Right Choice

The results provided by HCG injections and drops are relatively the same. So, why spend hundreds of dollars on painful and expensive injections, when you can have the convenience of just dropping HCG in your mouth and getting the same results? There is no need to get shots when you can get your own drops online. You can follow the HCG diet without going to the doctor’s clinic and paying expensive fees.

There are many options when buying drops since a lot of products have been coming out. Make sure that you are buying drops that are manufactured by a company with good standards. Always remember that not all HCG drops are the same; be sure to choose the product with good reviews.